Past perfect

- The past perfect is used to show that one event happened before another one. It doesn’t matter which event is mentioned first in the sentence; the past perfect clarifies their temporal order.

Using the past perfect
First event Second event
I had left Before Shelly arrived at the office.
Clara had done the dishes When I returned this morning.
I had just boarded the airplane When my mother called me.

- Rules for conjugating past perfect:

Paste tense of have + past participle of main verb

It’s often used with specific expressions of time, like:

After, before, by the time, etc.

Verb Affirmative Negative
(using the contraction of "not")
Call Had called Hadn’t called Had [you] called?
Pay Had paid Hadn’t paid Had [you] paid?
See Had seen Hadn’t seen Had [you] seen?
Finish Had finished Hadn’t finished Had [you] finished?

- Examples:

After I had called the hotel I saw you.
The company had been sold by the time you emailed me.
Lacy had just run a marathon when we ran into her yesterday.