- The past perfect is used to show that one event happened before another one. It doesn’t matter which event is mentioned first in the sentence; the past perfect clarifies their temporal order.
|First event||Second event|
|I had left||Before Shelly arrived at the office.|
|Clara had done the dishes||When I returned this morning.|
|I had just boarded the airplane||When my mother called me.|
- Rules for conjugating past perfect:Paste tense of have + past participle of main verb
It’s often used with specific expressions of time, like:
After, before, by the time, etc.
(using the contraction of "not")
|Call||Had called||Hadn’t called||Had [you] called?|
|Pay||Had paid||Hadn’t paid||Had [you] paid?|
|See||Had seen||Hadn’t seen||Had [you] seen?|
|Finish||Had finished||Hadn’t finished||Had [you] finished?|
|After I had called the hotel I saw you.|
|The company had been sold by the time you emailed me.|
|Lacy had just run a marathon when we ran into her yesterday.|